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Annotated Bibliography



Ellsberg, M., Caldera, T., Herrera, A., Winkvist, A., & Kullgren, G. (1999). Domestic violence and emotional distress among Nicaraguan women: Results from a population-based study. American Psychologist, 54(1), 30-36. Language: English

This study aimed to measure the prevalence of emotional distress among women in Leon, Nicaragua, and to identify risk factors for emotional distress, with special reference to wife abuse. A survey was performed among a representative sample of women aged 15-49. Among ever-married women, 20% were classified as experiencing emotional distress at the time of the interview, and 52% reported physical partner abuse at some point in their lives. Women reporting abuse were six times more likely to experience emotional distress. An estimated 70% of all cases of emotional distress found among ever-married women were attributable to wife abuse. The study underscores the need to improve screening and care for battered women within mental health services in Nicaragua.

Ellsberg, M., Liljestrand, J., & Winkvist, A. (1997). The Nicaraguan network of women against violence: Using research and action for change. Reproductive Health Matters, 10, 82-92. Language: English

Public awareness in Nicaragua regarding domestic violence has undergone a profound transformation in recent years. Once viewed as a private problem affecting few women, it is now considered a major social problem. This is largely due to the work of a broad-based movement, spearheaded by the National network of Women Against Violence, which includes over 150 women’s groups and hundreds of individual women all over the country. The process of drafting, lobbying, and mobilizing support for a new Domestic Violence Law in 1996 was successful due to the creation of strategic alliances with politicians, government officials, community leaders, and professionals from a broad range of disciplines. Epidemiological and participatory research provided data that convinced policymakers of the need for reform. This paper traces the history of the anti-violence movement since the 1980s and describes the multiple strategies used to place domestic violence on the national political agenda.

Ellsberg, M., Peña, R., Herrera, A., Lilijestrand, J., & Winkvist, A.. (1996). Confites en el infierno: Prevalecía y características de la violencia conyugal hacia las mujeres en Nicaragua [Candy in heaven: Prevalence and characteristics of marital v

This book is the result of a collaborative effort of the Asociación de Mujeres Profesionales por la Democracia en el Desarrollo [Association of Professional Women for Democracy in Development], the Department of Preventive Medicine at UNAN-León, and the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at the University of Umea, Sweden. The Red de Mujeres contra la Violencia [Network of Women Against Violence] were consultants for all stages of the project. The study, based on a randomly selected sample of women between 15-49 years of age in the City of León, Nicaragua, was conducted for the purpose of obtaining prevalence rates for lifetime and current physical or sexual violence, identifying risk factors, exploring the circumstances surrounding the abuse as well as the impact on health status of the women and their children. The book presents tables and graphs regarding prevalence of different types of abuse, sociodemographic characteristics, co-occurrence with alcohol and other drugs, child witnessing, as well as questions regarding contextual data.

Ellsberg, M., Peña, R., Herrera, A., Lilijestrand, J., & Winkvist, A.. (1999). Wife abuse among women of childbearing age in Nicaragua. American Journal of Public Health, 89(2), 241-244. Language: English

This study measured the prevalence, frequency, and severity of physical wife abuse and its risk factors in León, Nicaragua. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of 488 women 15 to 49 years of age. The lifetime prevalence of spousal violence was 52% among ever-married women (n=360). Spousal violence was significantly and positively associated with poverty, parity, urban residence, and history of violence in the husband’s family. No significant associations were found between spousal violence and women’s age, education, marital dependency, or occupation.

Erez, E. (2000). Immigration, Culture Conflict and Domestic Violence/Women Battering. Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International Journal, 2, 27-36. Language: English

This article explores the way in which immigration status interacts with domestic violence/woman battering in the lives of immigrant women in multicultural societies such as the USA, Australia, Germany and Israel. It reviews the reasons immigrant women are particularly vulnerable to battering, and discusses the reasons they stay with the batterers, avoid reporting the abuse to law enforcement authorities, and under-utilize social services. The article concludes with the implications of these issues for criminal justice policy and research.